Byte addressable non-volatile memory (NVRAM) is likely to supplement, and perhaps eventually replace, DRAM. Applications can then persist data structures directly in memory instead of serializing them and storing them onto a durable block device. However, failures during execution can leave data structures in NVRAM unreachable or corrupt. In this paper, we present Makalu, a system that addresses non-volatile memory management. Makalu offers an integrated allocator and recovery-time garbage collector that maintains internal consistency, avoids NVRAM memory leaks, and is efficient, all in the face of failures.
We show that a careful allocator design can support a less restrictive and a much more familiar programming model than existing persistent memory allocators. Our allocator significantly reduces the per allocation persistence overhead by lazily persisting non-essential metadata and by employing a post-failure recovery-time garbage collector. Experimental results show that the resulting online speed and scalability of our allocator are comparable to well-known transient allocators, and significantly better than state-of-the-art persistent allocators.